ETC
electronic fluid treatment technology
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Limescale Problems 

To understand how ENiGMA works it is necessary to have a basic understanding of why scale forms in water systems in the first place.

Rain absorbs carbon dioxide as it falls to earth and percolates through the ground. The resulting acidity of the water causes normally insoluble calcium carbonate (chalk or limestone) to dissolve into a bicarbonate state. Thus calcium bicarbonate becomes part of the water chemistry, and can not be removed by simple filtration.

When hard water is heated some of the carbon dioxide is released resulting in a small amount of its calcium bicarbonate reverting back to a calcium carbonate state. Thus precipitated hard crystals form onto the surface that caused their precipitation. As more water is introduced further crystals form and build-up to produce scale.

Now the chemistry bit (click here to view the presentation)

Limescale Prevention

Applying ENiGMA treatment results in premature precipitation of calcium bicarbonate into the bulk of the water.  These tiny crystals now have a host (other ions in the water) and will not adhere to surfaces.

Crystals from ENiGMA treated water                         Crystals from untreated water